This is an imposing hill, 147 m high, situated to the southeast of the Acropolis and once used as a sanctuary to the Muses (Mouseion). On top of the hill, it is still possible to see the foundations for the surrounding fortified wall dating from 294 BC, built by Demetrius the Besieger to install his guards. Later, in Roman times (115 AD), the City gave permission for a burial monument to be erected here in honor of Philopappos, a descendant of the Seleucids. It is an interesting example of the architecture and sculpture of the period.

In 1954-1957, the architect and thinker Dimitris Pikionis formed a wonderful area for viewing the Acropolis from the hill of Philopappou. He also created the pathways leading up to the Acropolis, the Areopagus and the Hills of the Nymphs and of the Muses.

The pathways are an artistic achievement in themselves and the planting around them sensitive. Dimitris Pikionis was a major figure in the history of Greek architecture. He drew primarily on Greek tradition but was also influenced by the simplicity of Japanese aesthetics. His desire was that the hill of Philopappos should remain freely accessible alike to Athenians and visitors, as indeed it is up to today.